Background : Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever is still the major cause of child’s morbidity and mortality in Indonesia. In order to lower the incidence rate of severe dengue in children, there should be simple parameters which can be used to predict the severity of dengue viral infection. Sodium and potassium in human blood’s serum are possibly two laboratory profiles that can represent dengue severity levels.
Material : This is a cross sectional study, conducted by taking data from medical records of 43 child patients, who were admitted in the inpatient department, Jombang Regional Hospital during 2017. The samples were then categorized to Dengue Fever, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever, and Dengue Shock Syndrome according to Pongpan’s Dengue Severity Scoring. The correlations between serum’s sodium and potassium levels and Pongpan’s Dengue Severity Score were then analyzed using Pearson’s correlation test.
Results : The mean age of those 43 child patients was 7,8 years (range 2–13,8 years). The mean sodium level of the samples was 131.3 meq/L (range 115.0-139.0). The mean sodium level was significantly higher in patients with DF (134.38 meq/L) than in those with DHF (130.60 meq/L) (p <0.05). The mean potassium level of the samples was 3.93 meq/L (range 2.92-5.54). No significant difference between the mean potassium level of the DF and DHF patients (3.67 meq/L versus 3.99 meq/L; p>0.05). From the Pearson correlation test, we infer that there was significant correlation between sodium serum levels and dengue severity score (r=-0.439; p =0.003). However, potasium level doesn’t seem to show the same correlation with dengue severity score (r=0.074; p =0.636).
Conclusions : Sodium serum level is significantly correlated with dengue severity score, but not potassium serum level. Serum sodium levels were significantly lower in patients with DHF than in patients with DF. Further studies are required to determine whether hyponatremia can be used as prognostic indicator of dengue viral infection.