Abstract Ref Number = APCP246
AETIOLOGY OF MICROCYTIC ANAEMIA IN CHILDREN
Sachith Mettananda,Sanjaya Paranamana,Yasintha Costa,DKTP Dayanath,Roshale Fernando,Marius Suranjan,Rexon Rodrigo,Luxman Perera,Anuja Premawardhena
University of Kelaniya Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Background : Microcytic anaemia is common among children and is often attributed to iron deficiency. Other causes are given less priority. We aimed to describe the aetiology of microcytic anaemia among children aged between 6-59 months.
Material : A descriptive study was conducted at Teaching Hospital, Ragama from March 2016 to February 2017. All newly diagnosed patients with microcytic anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0g/dL and mean corpuscular volume<80fL) were recruited. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and 5ml of venous blood was obtained for full blood count, serum ferritin, capillary electrophoresis and ?-globin genotype. A therapeutic trial with oral iron (6mg/kg/day) was given to all children and response was assessed after one month. Ethical approval was obtained from Ethics Committee of University of Kelaniya and data were analysed using SPSS.
Results : Sixty-six children (male-54.5%; mean age-20.5±13.9 months) were recruited. Severity of anaemia was mild-38%, moderate-61% and severe-1%. Reported clinical features were; irritability (26%), loss of appetite (6%), fatigue (5%), pica (3%), brittle hair (26%), dry skin (23%), angular stomatitis (2%) and glossitis (2%). Aetiologically, 28(42.4%) had iron deficiency (ferritin<15ng/ml), 24(36.4%) had low-normal serum ferritin (15-30ng/ml), 4(6.1%) had ?-thalassaemia trait and 9(13.6%) had ?-thalassaemia trait. Response to a trial of iron (haemoglobin increase >1g/dl after 1 month) was observed in 27(40.9%).
Conclusions : Less than half of children with microcytic anaemia had low serum ferritin and only 41% of children demonstrated a responded to a trial of oral iron. Thalassaemia trait, specially ?-thalassaemia is an important cause for microcytic anaemia in asymptomatic children.
Keywords: Iron Deficiency Microcytic Anaemia Thalassaemia