Abstract Ref Number = APCP195
EFFECT OF 2ND AND 3RD HAND SMOKERS
Indonesian Pediatrics Society
Smoker in adolescent very dangerous in some aspects such as behavior and emotional problems, physical activities and nutritional states.The incidence of child and adolescent smokersbased on the World Health Organization, there are more than 150 million adolescent smokers worldwide, and it continues to increase. Indonesian survey data show the prevalence of smokers is 34.7% meanwhile in West Java is 37.7%. Sixty nine % of Indonesian adolescentsare active smokers. A Recent studis showed smoker in adolescent may lead an emotional behavior problem during adolescent and adult mental disorder and increase adolescents risk taking behavior, such as smoking. The degree of smoking was associated with conduct emotionalproblem and hyperactivity behavior in adolescent. Smoking-related death may be increased twice every decade. Early age smokers may experience diseases in later life when they reach adulthood, and they are also at risk of diseases earlier at young age. Physical activity has been found to be one of the risk factor of smoking in adolescent. low and moderate physical activity, positive perception of smoking, and exposure to smoking close friends increase the risk of smoking in male adolescent. The prevalence of adolescent smoker is increasing as they started smoke at an earlier age. Nicotine is one of substance in cigarettes that might decrease the appetite than decrease nutritional intake, so intake in smoker associated with the nutritional status.There were significant differences between smoker and non-smoker adolescent in the carbohydrate intake (131.52 g; 162.45 g), protein (36.10 g; 42.54 g) and fat (36.59 g; 40.98 g).Smoking also showed association abnormal serum lipid levels. Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL levels in smokers are statistically different compared to those in non-smokers adolescent.Serum TC and LDL significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers and the serum HDL levels were significantly lower in smokers as compared to non-smokers group although the mean levels of TC, LDL and HDL of both groups were within normal limits. In other study showed, smoking more than 5 cigarettes/day significantly increases total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceridelevels, as well as reduces HDL cholesterol levels; while smoking more than 2 years significantly increases total cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Keywords: adolescent, emotional, physical, lipid, smokers