BRAIN DEVELOPMENT RELATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONE
Udayana University Bali
The human brain undergoes significant changes in both its structural architecture and functional organization across the life span. Advances in neuroimaging techniques over the past decade have allowed us to track these changes safely in the human in vivo.
Magnetic resonance technologies have introduced a new set of tools for capturing features of brain development in living developing humans. The three most common MR methods used in the study of human development and learning: Structural MRI, produces structural images of the brain that useful for anatomical and morphometric studies; Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures connectivity of fiber tracts between anatomical structures; and functional MRI (fMRI) measures patterns of brain activity within those structures. fMRI can detect dynamic metabolic changes during brain maturation, which is a different developmental process from white matter myelination. The metabolic changes detected by fMRI provide a milestone for the evaluation of normal brain development.
Not all brain regions mature at the same rate. The plasticity and prolonged development of the brain provides an opportunity for continual modification of cognitive function, but creates a potential susceptibility to the formation of abnormal circuitry leading to compromised behavioral function. The brain is especially vulnerable to experiences at the early of life and at the onset of puberty when the frontal lobe is massively pruning synapses, so mental stimulations are very important during that time.
Disclaimer: The Views and opinions expressed in the articles are of the authors and not of the journal.
Mid City Hospital, 3-A Shadman II
Jail Road, Lahore ,Pakistan