Abstract Ref Number = APCP144
Japanese Encephalitis in Indonesia: arecent update
Pediatric Neurology Sanglah Hospital Faculty of Medicine Udayana University Bali, Indonesia
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a zoonosis disease caused by JE viral infection which attacks the central nervous system (CNS). This disease is transmitted by mosquito’s bites called CulexTritaeniorhynchus with using pigs and waterfowl as an amplifying host.JE is one of the leading forms of viral encephalitis worldwide, mostly prevalent in eastern and southern Asia including Indonesia, covering a region with a population of over three billion. Approximately 68,000 severe clinical cases of JE estimated to occur each year. About 20-30% case fatality rate, 30-50% of those who survive can have permanent neurologic or psychiatric sequelae. Globally, 75% of cases occur in children 1-14 year.Clinically, JE is undistinguishable from acute encephalitis of other etiologies. Laboratory test is needed for JE diagnosis with etection of virus specific IgM in CSF and serum .Most of the JE cases are asymptomatic, mild and moderate is in middle spectrum but in severe cases mostly die due to the complicationsThere are no specific treatment for JE cases.Prevention action is the most important things need to be done.
JE survailance was done in 11 provinces of Indonesia started from 2014 until 2016. The survailance in 2014 found JE cases in four provinces including Bali, West Kalimantan, North Sulawesi and Central Java, meanwhile in 2015 the JE case was found in six provinces including Bali, West Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, NTT, Jogjakarta and Jakarta. The number of JE case increased in 2016 into 7 provinces including Bali, West Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, NTT, Jakarta and Riau. Bali was found had the highest frequency of JE cases.
JE vaccine was introduce in Indonesia in 2018 in Bali which is choosen as the pilot project. The JE introduction vaccination program in Bali is divided to two phase. The first phase is school-based vaccination which targeting all of the children age 6-14 year. The second phase is community-based vaccination which targeting all of the children age 9 months – 5 year.After the introduction of JE vaccine in Bali, The Indonesia health ministry programed JE vaccine as routine immunitation programme starting from the age of 9 months to 15 years old and Bali was chosen as the first province of Indonesia which has JE vaccine as routine immunitation programme started from May 2018.